dos2unix package plain text file format convert utilities

Windows 和 *unix 平台之間文件檔案格式互轉工具「dos2unix」。

Ubuntu 安裝 dos2unix:

sudo apt-get install dos2unix

此套件提供 dos2unix、unix2dos、unix2mac、mac2unix 四個指令來應付不同平台間的文件格式轉換。

使用說明手冊:

dos2unix(1) 2011-10-19 dos2unix(1)

NAME
dos2unix - DOS/Mac to Unix and vice versa text file format converter

SYNOPSIS
dos2unix [options] [FILE ...] [-n INFILE OUTFILE ...]
unix2dos [options] [FILE ...] [-n INFILE OUTFILE ...]

DESCRIPTION
The Dos2unix package includes utilities "dos2unix" and "unix2dos" to convert plain text files in DOS
or Mac format to Unix format and vice versa.

In DOS/Windows text files a line break, also known as newline, is a combination of two characters: a
Carriage Return (CR) followed by a Line Feed (LF). In Unix text files a line break is a single
character: the Line Feed (LF). In Mac text files, prior to Mac OS X, a line break was single Carriage
Return (CR) character. Nowadays Mac OS uses Unix style (LF) line breaks.

Binary files are automatically skipped, unless conversion is forced.

Non-regular files, such as directories and FIFOs, are automatically skipped.

Symbolic links and their targets are by default kept untouched. Symbolic links can optionally be
replaced, or the output can be written to the symbolic link target. Symbolic links on Windows are not
supported. Windows symbolic links always replaced, keeping the targets unchanged.

Dos2unix was modelled after dos2unix under SunOS/Solaris and has similar conversion modes.

OPTIONS
-- Treat all following options as file names. Use this option if you want to convert files whose
names start with a dash. For instance to convert a file named "-foo", you can use this command:

dos2unix -- -foo

Or in new file mode:

dos2unix -n -- -foo out.txt

-ascii
Convert only line breaks. This is the default conversion mode.

-iso
Conversion between DOS and ISO-8859-1 character set. See also section CONVERSION MODES.

-1252
Use Windows code page 1252 (Western European).

-437
Use DOS code page 437 (US). This is the default code page used for ISO conversion.

-850
Use DOS code page 850 (Western European).

-860
Use DOS code page 860 (Portuguese).

-863
Use DOS code page 863 (French Canadian).

-865
Use DOS code page 865 (Nordic).

-7 Convert 8 bit characters to 7 bit space.

-c, --convmode CONVMODE
Set conversion mode. Where CONVMODE is one of: ascii, 7bit, iso, mac with ascii being the default.

-f, --force
Force conversion of binary files.

-h, --help
Display help and exit.

-k, --keepdate
Keep the date stamp of output file same as input file.

-L, --license
Display program's license.

-l, --newline
Add additional newline.

dos2unix: Only DOS line breaks are changed to two Unix line breaks. In Mac mode only Mac line
breaks are changed to two Unix line breaks.

unix2dos: Only Unix line breaks are changed to two DOS line breaks. In Mac mode Unix line breaks
are changed to two Mac line breaks.

-n, --newfile INFILE OUTFILE ...
New file mode. Convert file INFILE and write output to file OUTFILE. File names must be given in
pairs and wildcard names should not be used or you will lose your files.

-o, --oldfile FILE ...
Old file mode. Convert file FILE and overwrite output to it. The program default to run in this
mode. Wildcard names may be used.

-q, --quiet
Quiet mode. Suppress all warnings and messages. The return value is zero. Except when wrong
command-line options are used.

-s, --safe
Skip binary files (default).

-F, --follow-symlink
Follow symbolic links and convert the targets.

-R, --replace-symlink
Replace symbolic links with converted files (original target files remain unchanged).

-S, --skip-symlink
Keep symbolic links and targets unchanged (default).

-V, --version
Display version information and exit.

MAC MODE
In normal mode line breaks are converted from DOS to Unix and vice versa. Mac line breaks are not
converted.

In Mac mode line breaks are converted from Mac to Unix and vice versa. DOS line breaks are not
changed.

To run in Mac mode use the command-line option "-c mac" or use the commands "mac2unix" or "unix2mac".

CONVERSION MODES
Conversion modes ascii, 7bit, and iso are similar to those of dos2unix/unix2dos under SunOS/Solaris.

ascii
In mode "ascii" only line breaks are converted. This is the default conversion mode.

Although the name of this mode is ASCII, which is a 7 bit standard, the actual mode is 8 bit. Use
always this mode when converting Unicode UTF-8 files.

7bit
In this mode all 8 bit non-ASCII characters (with values from 128 to 255) are converted to a 7 bit
space.

iso Characters are converted between a DOS character set (code page) and ISO character set ISO-8859-1
(Latin-1) on Unix. DOS characters without ISO-8859-1 equivalent, for which conversion is not
possible, are converted to a dot. The same counts for ISO-8859-1 characters without DOS
counterpart.

When only option "-iso" is used dos2unix will try to determine the active code page. When this is
not possible dos2unix will use default code page CP437, which is mainly used in the USA. To force
a specific code page use options "-437" (US), "-850" (Western European), "-860" (Portuguese),
"-863" (French Canadian), or "-865" (Nordic). Windows code page CP1252 (Western European) is also
supported with option "-1252". For other code pages use dos2unix in combination with iconv(1).
Iconv can convert between a long list of character encodings.

Some examples:

Convert from DOS default code page to Unix Latin-1

dos2unix -iso -n in.txt out.txt

Convert from DOS CP850 to Unix Latin-1

dos2unix -850 -n in.txt out.txt

Convert from Windows CP1252 to Unix Latin-1

dos2unix -1252 -n in.txt out.txt

Convert from Windows CP1252 to Unix UTF-8 (Unicode)

iconv -f CP1252 -t UTF-8 in.txt | dos2unix > out.txt

Convert from Windows UTF-16 (Unicode) to Unix UTF-8 (Unicode)

iconv -f UTF-16 -t UTF-8 in.txt | dos2unix > out.txt

Convert from Unix Latin-1 to DOS default code page.

unix2dos -iso -n in.txt out.txt

Convert from Unix Latin-1 to DOS CP850

unix2dos -850 -n in.txt out.txt

Convert from Unix Latin-1 to Windows CP1252

unix2dos -1252 -n in.txt out.txt

Convert from Unix UTF-8 (Unicode) to Windows CP1252

unix2dos < in.txt | iconv -f UTF-8 -t CP1252 > out.txt

Convert from Unix UTF-8 (Unicode) to Windows UTF-16 (Unicode)

unix2dos < in.txt | iconv -f UTF-8 -t UTF-16 > out.txt

See also <http://czyborra.com/charsets/codepages.html> and
<http://czyborra.com/charsets/iso8859.html>.

UNICODE
There exist different Unicode encodings. On Unix/Linux Unicode files are mostly encoded in UTF-8
encoding. UTF-8 is ASCII compatible. UTF-8 files can have DOS, Unix or Mac line breaks. It is safe to
run dos2unix/unix2dos on UTF-8 encoded files. On Windows mostly UTF-16 encoding is used for Unicode
files. Dos2unix/unix2dos should not be run on UTF-16 files. UTF-16 files are automatically skipped,
because they are considered binary.

EXAMPLES
Read input from 'stdin' and write output to 'stdout'.

dos2unix
dos2unix -l -c mac

Convert and replace a.txt. Convert and replace b.txt.

dos2unix a.txt b.txt
dos2unix -o a.txt b.txt

Convert and replace a.txt in ascii conversion mode.

dos2unix a.txt

Convert and replace a.txt in ascii conversion mode. Convert and replace b.txt in 7bit conversion
mode.

dos2unix a.txt -c 7bit b.txt
dos2unix -c ascii a.txt -c 7bit b.txt
dos2unix -ascii a.txt -7 b.txt

Convert a.txt from Mac to Unix format.

dos2unix -c mac a.txt
mac2unix a.txt

Convert a.txt from Unix to Mac format.

unix2dos -c mac a.txt
unix2mac a.txt

Convert and replace a.txt while keeping original date stamp.

dos2unix -k a.txt
dos2unix -k -o a.txt

Convert a.txt and write to e.txt.

dos2unix -n a.txt e.txt

Convert a.txt and write to e.txt, keep date stamp of e.txt same as a.txt.

dos2unix -k -n a.txt e.txt

Convert and replace a.txt. Convert b.txt and write to e.txt.

dos2unix a.txt -n b.txt e.txt
dos2unix -o a.txt -n b.txt e.txt

Convert c.txt and write to e.txt. Convert and replace a.txt. Convert and replace b.txt. Convert d.txt
and write to f.txt.

dos2unix -n c.txt e.txt -o a.txt b.txt -n d.txt f.txt

LOCALIZATION
LANG
The primary language is selected with the environment variable LANG. The LANG variable consists
out of several parts. The first part is in small letters the language code. The second is optional
and is the country code in capital letters, preceded with an underscore. There is also an optional
third part: character encoding, preceded with a dot. A few examples for POSIX standard type
shells:

export LANG=nl Dutch
export LANG=nl_NL Dutch, The Netherlands
export LANG=nl_BE Dutch, Belgium
export LANG=es_ES Spanish, Spain
export LANG=es_MX Spanish, Mexico
export LANG=en_US.iso88591 English, USA, Latin-1 encoding
export LANG=en_GB.UTF-8 English, UK, UTF-8 encoding

For a complete list of language and country codes see the gettext manual:
http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/gettext.html#Language-Codes
<http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/gettext.html#Language-Codes>

On Unix systems you can use to command locale(1) to get locale specific information.

LANGUAGE
With the LANGUAGE environment variable you can specify a priority list of languages, separated by
colons. Dos2unix gives preference to LANGUAGE over LANG. For instance, first Dutch and then
German: "LANGUAGE=nl:de". You have to first enable localization, by setting LANG (or LC_ALL) to a
value other than "C", before you can use a language priority list through the LANGUAGE variable.
See also the gettext manual:
http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/gettext.html#The-LANGUAGE-variable
<http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/gettext.html#The-LANGUAGE-variable>

If you select a language which is not available you will get the standard English messages.

DOS2UNIX_LOCALEDIR
With the environment variable DOS2UNIX_LOCALEDIR the LOCALEDIR set during compilation can be
overruled. LOCALEDIR is used to find the language files. The GNU default value is
"/usr/local/share/locale". Option --version will display the LOCALEDIR that is used.

Example (POSIX shell):

export DOS2UNIX_LOCALEDIR=$HOME/share/locale

RETURN VALUE
On success, zero is returned. When a system error occurs the system error will be returned. For other
errors 1 is returned.

The return value is always zero in quiet mode, except when wrong command-line options are used.

STANDARDS
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Text_file http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carriage_return
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newline

AUTHORS
Benjamin Lin - <blin@socs.uts.edu.au> Bernd Johannes Wuebben (mac2unix mode) - <wuebben@kde.org>,
Christian Wurll (add extra newline) - <wurll@ira.uka.de>, Erwin Waterlander - <waterlan@xs4all.nl>
(Maintainer)

Project page: <http://www.xs4all.nl/~waterlan/dos2unix.html>

SourceForge page: <http://sourceforge.net/projects/dos2unix/>

Freshmeat: <http://freshmeat.net/projects/dos2unix>

SEE ALSO
file(1) iconv(1)

dos2unix 2011-04-26 dos2unix(1)

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