ntfs-3g – Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver

Mount a ntfs filesystem partition must to use this driver ntfs-3g on linux OS.

man of ntfs-3g


       ntfs-3g - Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver

       ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point

       ntfs-3g  is  an NTFS driver, which can create, remove, rename, move files, directories, hard links, and
       streams; it can read and write files, including streams,  sparse  files  and  transparently  compressed
       files;  it can handle special files like symbolic links, devices, and FIFOs; moreover it provides stan‐
       dard management of file ownership and permissions, including POSIX ACLs.

       It comes in two variants ntfs-3g and lowntfs-3g with a few  differences  mentioned  below  in  relevant
       options descriptions.

       The volume to be mounted can be either a block device or an image file.

   Access Handling and Security
       By  default,  files  and directories are owned by the effective user and group of the mounting process,
       and everybody has full read, write, execution and directory browsing permissions.  You can also  assign
       permissions  to a single user by using the uid and/or the gid options together with the umask, or fmask
       and dmask options.

       Doing so, Windows users have full access to the files created by ntfs-3g.

       But, by setting the permissions option, you can benefit from the full ownership  and  permissions  fea‐
       tures  as  defined  by POSIX. Moreover, by defining a Windows-to-Linux user mapping, the ownerships and
       permissions are even applied to Windows users and conversely.

       If ntfs-3g is set setuid-root then non-root users will be also able to mount volumes.

   Windows Filename Compatibility
       NTFS supports several filename namespaces: DOS, Win32 and POSIX. While the ntfs-3g driver  handles  all
       of  them, it always creates new files in the POSIX namespace for maximum portability and interoperabil‐
       ity reasons.  This means that filenames are case sensitive and all characters are  allowed  except  '/'
       and '\0'. This is perfectly legal on Windows, though some application may get confused. The option win‐
       dows_names may be used to apply Windows restrictions to new file names.

   Alternate Data Streams (ADS)
       NTFS stores all data in streams. Every file has exactly one unnamed data stream and can have many named
       data  streams.   The  size  of a file is the size of its unnamed data stream.  By default, ntfs-3g will
       only read the unnamed data stream.

       By  using  the  options  "streams_interface=windows",  with  the  ntfs-3g  driver  (not  possible  with
       lowntfs-3g),  you  will  be able to read any named data streams, simply by specifying the stream's name
       after a colon.  For example:

              cat some.mp3:artist

       Named data streams act like normal files, so you can read from them, write to them and even delete them
       (using  rm).   You  can  list  all the named data streams a file has by getting the "ntfs.streams.list"
       extended attribute.

       Below is a summary of the options that ntfs-3g accepts.

       uid=value and gid=value
              Set the owner and the group of files and directories. The values are  numerical.   The  defaults
              are the uid and gid of the current process.

              Set  the  bitmask of the file and directory permissions that are not present. The value is given
              in octal. The default value is 0 which means full access to everybody.

              Set the  bitmask of the file permissions that are not present.  The value is given in octal. The
              default value is 0 which means full access to everybody.

              Set the  bitmask of the directory permissions that are not present. The value is given in octal.
              The default value is 0 which means full access to everybody.

              Use file file-name as the user mapping file instead  of  the  default  .NTFS-3G/UserMapping.  If
              file-name defines a full path, the file must be located on a partition previously mounted. If it
              defines a relative path, it is interpreted relative to the root of NTFS partition being mounted.

              When a user mapping file is defined, the options uid=, gid=, umask=, fmask=, dmask=  and  silent
              are ignored.

              Set  standard  permissions on created files and use standard access control.  This option is set
              by default when a user mapping file is present.

       acl    Enable setting Posix ACLs on created files and use them for access control.  This option is only
              available  on  specific builds. It is set by default when a user mapping file is present and the
              permissions mount option is not set.

              When creating a new file, set its initial protections according to inheritance rules defined  in
              parent directory. These rules deviate from Posix specifications, but yield a better Windows com‐
              patibility. The compression option or a valid user mapping file is required for this  option  to
              be effective.

       ro     Mount filesystem read-only. Useful if Windows is hibernated or the NTFS journal file is unclean.

              This  option  can  be useful when wanting a language specific locale environment.  It is however
              discouraged as it leads to files with untranslatable chars to not be visible.

       force  This option is obsolete. It has been superseded by the recover and norecover options.

              Recover and try to mount a partition which was not unmounted properly by  Windows.  The  Windows
              logfile is cleared, which may cause inconsistencies.  Currently this is the default option.

              Do not try to mount a partition which was not unmounted properly by Windows.

       ignore_case (only with lowntfs-3g)
              Ignore  character  case when accessing a file (FOO, Foo, foo, etc. designate the same file). All
              files are displayed with lower case in directory listings.

              Unlike in case of read-only mount, the read-write mount is denied if the NTFS volume  is  hiber‐
              nated.  One  needs  either  to resume Windows and shutdown it properly, or use this option which
              will remove the Windows hibernation file. Please note, this means that the saved Windows session
              will be completely lost. Use this option under your own responsibility.

       atime, noatime, relatime
              The atime option updates inode access time for each access.

              The  noatime  option  disables  inode access time updates which can speed up file operations and
              prevent sleeping (notebook) disks spinning up too often thus saving energy and disk lifetime.

              The relatime option is very similar to noatime.  It updates inode access times relative to  mod‐
              ify  or  change  time.   The access time is only updated if the previous access time was earlier
              than the current modify or change time. Unlike noatime this option  doesn't  break  applications
              that  need  to  know  if  a file has been read since the last time it was modified.  This is the
              default behaviour.

              Delay the updating of file modification time and file change time until the file is closed. This
              is  mainly  useful for files which are written to without changing their size, such as databases
              or file system images mounted as loop.

              Show the metafiles in directory listings.  Otherwise  the  default  behaviour  is  to  hide  the
              metafiles,  which are special files used to store the NTFS structure. Please note that even when
              this option is specified, "$MFT" may not be visible due to a glibc bug.  Furthermore,  irrespec‐
              tively of show_sys_files, all files are accessible by name, for example you can always do "ls -l

              Hide the hidden files and directories in directory listings, the hidden  files  and  directories
              being  the  ones  whose  NTFS  attribute have the hidden flag set.  The hidden files will not be
              selected when using wildcards in commands, but all files and directories  remain  accessible  by
              full  name,  for  example  you  can  always display the Windows trash bin directory by : "ls -ld

              Set the hidden flag in the NTFS attribute for created files and directories whose first  charac‐
              ter  of  the name is a dot. Such files and directories normally do not appear in directory list‐
              ings, and when the flag is set they do not appear in Windows directory displays either.

              This option prevents files, directories and extended attributes to be created with  a  name  not
              allowed  by  windows,  either because it contains some not allowed character (which are the nine
              characters " * / : < > ? \ | and those whose code is less than 0x20) or because the last charac‐
              ter is a space or a dot. Existing such files can still be read (and renamed).

              This  option  overrides  the  security  measure restricting file access to the user mounting the
              filesystem. This option is only allowed to root, but this restriction can be overridden  by  the
              'user_allow_other' option in the /etc/fuse.conf file.

              With this option the maximum size of read operations can be set.  The default is infinite.  Note
              that the size of read requests is limited anyway to 32 pages (which is 128kbyte on i386).

       silent Do nothing, without returning any error, on chmod and chown  operations,  when  the  permissions
              option is not set and no user mapping file is defined. This option is on by default.

              By  default ntfs-3g acts as if "silent" (ignore errors on chmod and chown), "allow_other" (allow
              any user to access files) and "nonempty" (allow mounting on non-empty directories) were set, and
              "no_def_opts" cancels these default options.

              This  option  controls  how  the user can access Alternate Data Streams (ADS) or in other words,
              named data streams. It can be set to, one of none, windows or xattr. If the  option  is  set  to
              none,  the user will have no access to the named data streams. If it is set to windows (not pos‐
              sible with  lowntfs-3g),  then  the  user  can  access  them  just  like  in  Windows  (eg.  cat
              file:stream).  If  it's  set to xattr, then the named data streams are mapped to xattrs and user
              can manipulate them using {get,set}fattr utilities. The default is xattr.

              Same as streams_interface=xattr.

              This option should only be used in backup or restore situation.  It changes the apparent size of
              files  and  the  behavior  of  read and write operation so that encrypted files can be saved and
              restored without being decrypted. The user.ntfs.efsinfo extended attribute has also to be  saved
              and restored for the file to be decrypted.

              This  option  enables creating new transparently compressed files in directories marked for com‐
              pression. A directory is marked for compression by setting the bit 11 (value 0x00000800) in  its
              Windows  attribute. In such a directory, new files are created compressed and new subdirectories
              are themselves marked for compression. The option and the flag have no effect on existing files.

              This option disables creating new transparently compressed files in directories marked for  com‐
              pression. Existing compressed files can still be read and updated. Currently this is the default

              This option prevents fuse from splitting write buffers into 4K chunks, enabling big  write  buf‐
              fers to be transferred from the application in a single step (up to some system limit, generally
              128K bytes).

       debug  Makes ntfs-3g to print a lot of debug output from libntfs-3g and FUSE.

              Makes ntfs-3g to not detach from terminal and print some debug output.

       NTFS uses specific ids to record the ownership of files instead of the uid and gid used by Linux. As  a
       consequence  a  mapping  between  the ids has to be defined for ownerships to be recorded into NTFS and

       By default, this mapping is fetched from the file .NTFS-3G/UserMapping located in the  NTFS  partition.
       The  option usermapping= may be used to define another location. When the option permissions is set and
       no mapping file is found, a default mapping is used.

       Each line in the user mapping file defines a mapping. It is organized  in  three  fields  separated  by
       colons.  The  first field identifies a uid, the second field identifies a gid and the third one identi‐
       fies the corresponding NTFS id, known as a SID. The uid and the gid are optional and defining  both  of
       them for the same SID is not recommended.

       If  no  interoperation  with Windows is needed, you can use the option permissions to define a standard
       mapping. Alternately, you may define your own mapping by setting a single default mapping with  no  uid
       and  gid.  In both cases, files created on Linux will appear to Windows as owned by a foreign user, and
       files created on Windows will appear to Linux as owned by root. Just copy the example below and replace
       the  9  and  10-digit  numbers by any number not greater than 4294967295. The resulting behavior is the
       same as the one with the option permission set with no ownership option and no user mapping file avail‐


       If  a  strong  interoperation  with  Windows is needed, the mapping has to be defined for each user and
       group known in both system, and the SIDs used by Windows has to be collected. This will lead to a  user
       mapping file like :


       The utility ntfs-3g.usermap may be used to create such a user mapping file.

       Mount /dev/sda1 to /mnt/windows:

              ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows
              mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows

       Mount the ntfs data partition /dev/sda3 to /mnt/data with standard Linux permissions applied :

              ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data
              mount -t ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data

       Read-only mount /dev/sda5 to /home/user/mnt and make user with uid 1000 to be the owner of all files:

              ntfs-3g /dev/sda5 /home/user/mnt -o ro,uid=1000

       /etc/fstab entry for the above (the sixth and last field has to be zero to avoid a file system check at
       boot time) :

              /dev/sda5 /home/user/mnt ntfs-3g ro,uid=1000 0 0

       Unmount /mnt/windows:

              umount /mnt/windows

       To  facilitate the use of the ntfs-3g driver in scripts, an exit code is returned to give an indication
       of the mountability status of a volume. Value 0 means success, and all other ones mean  an  error.  The
       unique error codes are documented in the ntfs-3g.probe(8) manual page.

       Please see


       for  common questions and known issues.  If you would find a new one in the latest release of the soft‐
       ware then please send an email describing it in detail. You can contact the  development  team  on  the
       ntfs-3g-devel@lists.sf.net address.

       ntfs-3g  was  based  on  and  a  major  improvement to ntfsmount and libntfs which were written by Yura
       Pakhuchiy and the Linux-NTFS team. The improvements were made, the ntfs-3g project  was  initiated  and
       currently led by long time Linux-NTFS team developer Szabolcs Szakacsits (szaka@tuxera.com).

       Several  people  made  heroic efforts, often over five or more years which resulted the ntfs-3g driver.
       Most importantly they are Anton Altaparmakov, Jean-Pierre André, Richard Russon,  Szabolcs  Szakacsits,
       Yura  Pakhuchiy,  Yuval Fledel, and the author of the groundbreaking FUSE filesystem development frame‐
       work, Miklos Szeredi.

       ntfs-3g.probe(8), ntfsprogs(8), attr(5), getfattr(1)

ntfs-3g 2012.1.15AR.1                            February 2010                                      NTFS-3G(8)



如果Intel® Management Engine (Intel ME:Intel管理引擎)驅動未能成功安裝,裝置管理員中可能會条件出現 “PCI簡單通訊控制器"的錯誤。請從以下連結下載對應的驅動安裝:

Intel® ME: 針對Intel 6 系列晶片主機板

Intel® ME: 針對Intel 5 系列晶片主機板

Intel® ME: 針對Intel 4 系列晶片主機板

Intel® ME: 針對Intel 3 系列晶片主機板

Proxmox 1.8 install r8168 driver (r8168 chip with r8169 driver)

如果你覺得網卡怎麼常常掛點或是反應很慢,此時就要檢查看看是否你的網卡是 r8168 晶片,但是系統卻用 r8169 的驅動模組。

lspci |grep Eth

02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168B PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller (rev 06)

cat /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules

# This file was automatically generated by the /lib/udev/write_net_rules
# program run by the persistent-net-generator.rules rules file.
# You can modify it, as long as you keep each rule on a single line.

# PCI device 0x10ec:0x8168 (r8169)

SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="?*", ATTR{address}=="14:da:e9:33:fc:aa", ATTR{dev_id}=="0x0″, ATTR{type}=="1″, KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth0″